of Materials





Abundant metal in the earth's crust. It can be found in kaolin, clay, alumina and bauxite. It is light, tough, ductile and malleable, with color and aspect similar to silver.


Grass family plant, originally from India, with a woody stem that reaches over 20m in height. The canes, though slight, are very resistant, and are used in building houses and for making furniture, weapons, tools, pots and other objects.

Blown glass

Glass objects manufacturing technique by creating bubbles in the molten glass.

Body / Mass

Dough material of the object.


Each of the hard pieces that form the skeleton of the vertebrates. Hard and compact part in the center of some fruits such as olives, cherry, peach, etc., which contains the seeds.


Body that emits or reflects light.


Overlapping set of multiple sheets of paper pulp that in wet condition adhere to each other by compression and then dry by evaporation.


Mixture consisting of clay and calcareous materials, subjected to baking and very finely ground, which solidifies when mixed with water and hardens.


Finely divided earth, constituted by aggregates of hydrated aluminum silicates, with different colors depending on the impurities that it contains.

Compact texture

Tight texture, dense, little porous.


Abundant metal in Earth's crust, found in native state or, more commonly, in a sulfure form. It has a Red-brown color and it is shiny, malleable and a good conductor of heat and electricity. Its form alloys such as brass or bronze, and it is used in the electrical industry and to make wire, coins and objects.


Plant tissue which can be found at the periphery of the trunk, branches and roots, usually in the form of thin sheets, but it can form layers of several inches thick, as in the bark of cork oak.


Fisure that can be found on an object.

Cracked texture

Texture finely cracked, separated, divided into small segments.


Material on the surface of an object which does not have its same composition and comes from an external source.


Polymer showing elastic behavior (gums). The gums are relatively soft and deformable at room temperature. Ex: rubber, silicone rubber ...


Vitreous glaze that adheres to porcelain, ceramic, metals and other materials through a fusion.

Fired ceramic

Terracotta. The clay is shaped and hardened in the oven. Used in the creation of ceramic vessels, sculptures and architectural decoration.


It is a mineral, rock or petrified material which can be cutted and polished for its used in jewelry.


Clay or porcelain with vitreous glaze.


Hard, brittle, shiny and translucent, often transparent material. Obtained from the merger of three core subjects: a vitrification (silica), a flux (sodium / potassium) and a stabilizer (calcium). It is the first synthetic material manufactured. In nature it can be found natural glasses, such as obsidian, volcanic rock appreciated and used in antiquity.


Metal found in the earth's crust, in native form and widely dispersed. Bright yellow and mostly unalterable, is the most ductile and malleable metal, very good conductor of heat and electricity. It is used as a precious metal in jewelry and in the fabrication of coins.

Green ceramic

Unbaked clay dried in the sun.


Hydrated calcium sulfate, compact or earthy, usually white, tenacious and soft (scratched with a fingernail). Dehydrated by the action of fire and ground, has the property of rapidly harden when mixed with water, and it is used in the construction and sculpture.

Hard wood

Solid wood of high quality, which comes from trees with slow growth, producing dense wood. Ex: oak.


Bone extension covered by an epidermal layer or a hard and consistent shell, that some animals have at the frontal region.

Igneous rock

Rocks from the melt existing within the Earth. Ex: Basalt, Granite

Industrial glass

Hard, brittle, shiny and translucent, often transparent material. Obtained from the merger of three core subjects: a vitrification (silica), a flux (sodium / potassium) and a stabilizer (calcium). It is the first synthetic material manufactured. In nature it can be found natural glasses, such as obsidian, volcanic rock appreciated and used in antiquity.


Abundant metal in Earth's crust that is found in hematite, magnetite and limonite. Of glossy black color or bluish gray, ductile, malleable and very tenacious, it oxidizes when exposed to air and has ferromagnetic properties. Alloyed with carbon it becomes steel and cast iron.


Hard material, compact and white where the teeth of the vertebrates are formed principally. In the industry it is being used the tusks of elephants for the manufacture of many objects.


Metal found in the earth's crust in the galena, anglesite, and cerussite. Bluish gray, ductile, heavy, malleable, and very soft.


Skin covering the meat of animals, after being tanned and prepared for different uses.


Calcium oxide. Alkaline substance white or greyish-white which, in contact with water, hydrates, with evolution of heat, and that mixed with sand becomes a lime mortar.

Metamorphic rock

Rocks that are formed from other rocks by a process called metamorphism (temperature and pressure).

Mineral binder

Mineral composition material that hardens when used to join different loose parts or components of a mixture. Usually mixed with water.

Mold glass

Glass obtained from crushed glass, baked in a simple mold at once. This technique is known from the Bronze Age.


Mass consisting of sand, binder and water, which may contain also additives.


Metal found in the earth's crust, native in meteorites and combined with sulfur and arsenic, in various minerals. Color and brightness of silver, hard, tenacious and resistant to corrosion. It is used in surface coating and alloyed with other metals to make coins and stainless steels.


Blocks the light.


Thin leaf made ​​of vegetable fiber pulp obtained from rags, wood, straw, etc.., ground, blanched and diluted in water, which is dried and hardened by special procedures.


Sheet extracted from the stem of the papyrus plant, indigenous from the East, and used in ancient times for the writing.


Skin of the animal, clean the fleece or hair, worn, dressed and stretched, used to write on it, to cover books or other uses.


Fine china, transparent, clear and shiny, invented in China and imitated in Europe.

Refractory materials

Material that resists the action of the fire without altering.

Sedimentary rock

Rocks formed by the accumulation of sediments, subjected to physical and chemical processes (diagenesis), giving place to more or less consolidated materials. Ex: calcite, sandstone


Metal found in the earth's crust, in native form and in some minerals. White, bright, very ductile, malleable and being a very good conductor of heat and electricity. Used in objects, coins and jewelry.

Soft wood

Light wood of trees belonging to the order of conifers, evergreens. Ex: pine, spruce


Paste composed generally of potter's clay and quartz sand, used in pottery to manufacture various items that, cooked at high temperatures, are resistant, waterproof and refractory.


Boundary of a body, which separates and distinguishes what is not himself.


Tissues. Capable of diminishing to threads and of being woven.

Thermoplastic polymer

Polymer which is plastic or deformable at high temperature, melts when heated and hardened in a glassy state when cooled. Ex: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA ), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Teflon (or polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE), nylon (polyamide type), cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate ...

Thermosetting polymer

Infusible and insoluble polymer. It is not easily altered by the action of heat. Good resistance to the impact, the solvents, the permeation of gases and high temperatures, processing difficulty, need curing, brittle. Ex: bakelite, urea-formaldehyde, melamine, polyurethane, epoxy resins ...


Metal limited in the earth's crust and found in the cassiterite in the form of dioxide. It is colored and shine like silver, it is hard, ductile and malleable. It is used to cover and protect other metals; alloyed with copper it becomes bronze.


Body that lets the light get through, but objects cannot be seen clearly.


Body through which objects can be seen clearly.

Uncohesive texture

Loose material, with little union, disintegrated.


Aboundant metal found in Earth's crust in the form of sulfide, carbonate or silicate. White, bright and soft, it is used in the manufacture of electric batteries, to form alloys such as brass and for galvanizing iron and steel.

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Last upgraded: February 2018